The history of the car

In 1885 Carl Benz built the (three-wheel) car equipped with a petrol engine. This vehicle was the start of the development and breakthrough of this type of internal combustion engine.
The first car built in Belgium was the Vincke and the first car built in the Netherlands was the Eysink. It is not known which brand of car was the first passenger car in the Netherlands, but it is known that the industrialist Jos Bogaers had bought the car and would have driven it on 17 December 1895.

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From top to bottom: Sedan, station wagon, Hatchback
There are different types of cars. Apart from trucks, vans, campers and buses, there are differences in the passenger cars.

Sedan; is a body shape with two or four doors and a boot lid where the boot or trunk cannot usually be reached via the driver’s area. On the outside it can be recognised by 3 “compartments”, on the front low where the engine is located, in the middle high where the passengers are seated, on the back low where the trunk is (usually) located.

Hatchback: a car in which the driver’s compartment can be reached via the boot/trunk. The boot is therefore not a separately closed boot. Also referred to as three- or five-door. Recognizable by 2 “compartments”, 1 for the engine and a higher one for the passengers.
Station wagon; a car that is often as long as the sedan version in terms of size and an extended hatchback in terms of shape.

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Terrain car; a car that is suitable for off-road driving by means of four-wheel drive, limited slip differential as well as high and low gearing.
SUV; also known as sports utility vehicle: an off-road vehicle in which driving characteristics and comfort have been optimised for use on the asphalt.
MPV; also called Multi-Purpose Vehicle: a car suitable for several people and purposes. Luggage is placed in the occupant compartment.

Coupé; a (usually sedan-based sporty) version of a car, with a roofline that starts to descend towards the trunk of the car behind the front seats.
Cabriolet; a car of which the roof can be removed to create an open car. It must be a cloth roof, because nowadays there are also many models with a steel folding roof and that is a coupé-cabriolet (often called CC, like the 207CC), actually a kind of crossover.
Sports car; a mostly race car based street car with a lot of power.

Cross-over; that’s how versions that can’t really be categorized are called, so they’re a bit of different models, for example the Nissan Qashqai (MPV and SUV intersection). Actually, the MPV is also a crossover between estate car and SUV, but this became such a popular model that it got its own name. Nowadays more and more mixed styles are used, like SSUV (Super Sports Utility Vehicle), MAV (Multi Activity Vehicle) or CUV (Crossover Utility Vehicle). Often this is marketing jargon.

Mule this is a type of car that is not for sale. It is a forerunner of a new model, but with an ‘old’ coach over it.
Prototype, usually a handmade first model, sometimes to gauge opinions, for a new model car to be made.

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Segments

Depending on the size, deployability and target group, a passenger car is divided into a certain segment. As a result, the prices and performance of cars of different brands, but divided into the same segment, can be compared more effectively. It is also possible to compare the sales figures of different brands and to take targeted marketing actions towards the different target groups.

The A and B segments are usually the smaller city cars. The C and D segments are the most common types for the middle class. From the E-segment onwards, the larger and more luxurious executive-type cars are usually used. The J to L-segments are often the larger MPVs or minibuses, of which the L-segment are often the SUVs and the 4×4 off-road vehicles.

Door or flap
When describing models of passenger cars, in addition to the type of bodywork, reference is often made to two, three, four or five doors. In this form of naming, it is important to distinguish between flap and door. The difference lies in the fact that a door can be used to gain access to the passenger compartment of the car. It can also be said that if the window opens with the opening, it is a door. A car therefore has a 3rd or 5th door if the passenger compartment is opened when it is opened. When access is provided to an independent space at the front or rear of the car, this is referred to as a flap. This concerns access to the engine compartment or the boot.

A sedan often has a bonnet (or hood) at the front and a boot lid at the back, but there are exceptions; there are also car models where the engine is placed in the back of the car. 

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